Sentences : Simple, Compound & Complex

For learning English Grammar, we firstly should know about 'Sentence' and 'Clause'. So we will have to understand 'Sentence' and 'Clause' before knowing about 'Simple', 'Compound' and 'Complex Sentences'.

Sentence - A Sentence is a group of words that makes complete sense. A sentence must begin with a capital letter. A sentence must end with a full stop (.). A question sentence must end with a question mark (?). Every sentence has two parts - the Subject and the Predicate.

Subject - The Subject is what we are talking about.

Predicate - The Predicate is what we say about the subject, e.g:

The cow is a useful animal.

Here 'The cow' is the Subject and 'is a useful animal' is the Predicate.

Therefore Subject and Predicate are necessary to make complete sense.

Clause - The part of the sentence which has 'one Subject' and 'one Finite Verb' is called Clause, e.g:


He told me that he would help me.


In above sentence, 'that he would help me' is the part of the complete sentence in which 'he' is Subject and 'would help' is Finite Verb. So 'that he would help me' is a Clause.


Types of Clauses:


1) Principal Clause - The clause which does not depend on other clause for its meaning is called Principal Clause. It is also called Independent Clause, e.g:


1) I don't know where he works

2) He is the boy who won the prize.

In above sentences, 'I don't know' and 'He is the boy' are Principal Clauses because they give complete meaning.


2) Co-ordinate Clause - This Clause is an Independent Clause because it does not depend on other clause. Two simple sentences are combined with each other with one Co-ordinate Conjunction,e.g:


1) I shall go and he will follow me.

2) God made the country and Man made the town.

In sentence 1, 'I shall go' and 'he will follow me' are two independent clauses but the clause which starts with Co-ordinate Conjunction is called Co-ordinate Clause.


3) Subordinate Clause - This clause does not have complete meaning in itself. It depends on Principal Clause to clear its meaning, e.g:


1) I asked him why he was shouting.

2) He didn't succeed though he worked hard.

In sentence 1, 'why he was shouting' is not able to give its complete meaning, it depends on 'I asked him' for its meaning. Therefore 'why he was shouting' is Subordinate Clause.



Sentences : Simple, Compound & Complex
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Types of Sentences:
Sentences are of three types:


1) Simple Sentences

2) Compound Sentences
3) Complex Sentences

1) Simple Sentence : A sentence which has only one subject and one predicate is known as a Simple Sentence.


Look at he following sentences :

1) He works hard.
2) She speaks politely.
3) Mr. Smith taught us last year.
4) He could not refuse my offer.
5) It has been raining since morning

Each of these sentences has only one subject and one predicate.



Subject
Predicate
He
works hard.
She
speaks politely.
Mr. Smith
taught us last year.
He
could not refuse my offer.
It
has been raining since morning.

2) Compound Sentence
: A Compound Sentence is composed of two or more co-ordinate clauses. All its clauses are of equal rank, and are called Co-ordinate Clauses. 'and', but', as well as', 'still', 'yet', 'while', 'so', 'either-or', 'neither-nor', 'not only-but also', 'or', 'otherwise', 'nevertheless' are Co-ordinate Conjunctions that are used in Compound Sentences.


The following sentences are compound sentences. 
1) Sam likes Mathematics but Tom hates it.
       Co-ordinate Clause           Co-ordinate Clause

In this compound sentence, two Co-ordinate Clauses 'Sam likes Mathematics' and 'Tom hates it' are joined by the Co-ordinate Conjunction 'but'.

2) The guard waved the train and the train started.
         Co-ordinate Clause              Co-ordinate Clause

In sentence 2, two Co-ordinate Clauses 'The guard waved the train' and 'the train started' are joined by the Co-ordinate Conjunction 'and'.

3) Complex Sentence : A Complex Sentence is composed of two or more clauses. One of the clauses in a Complex Sentence is more important than the other/others. The more important clause is called the Main Clause or the Principal Clause. The less important clause/clauses is/are called the Subordinate or Dependent Clause/Clauses. Some Subordinate Conjunctions, linked to Subordinate Clauses, are 'as', 'because', 'before', 'after', 'while', 'if', 'though', 'although', 'so that', 'as soon as', 'as long as', 'as much as', 'till', 'until', 'unless', 'as if', 'then', 'that', 'how', 'when', 'why', 'what', 'who', 'whom', 'whose', 'which', 'whether'.

Study the following sentences :
1) We do not know when he will come.
2) This is the boy who won the prize.
3) You can buy whatever you like.
4) He said that he would pass.
5) This is the place we met last year.

Principal Clause
Subordinate Clause
We do not know
when he will come.
This is the boy
who won the prize.
You can buy
whatever you like.
He said
that he would pass.
This is the place
where we met last year.

A sentence which consists of a Main Clause (Principal Clause) and one or more Subordinate (Dependent) Clause (s) is called Complex Sentence.

Difference between the Compound Sentence and the Complex Sentence :

Both the compound sentence and the complex sentence are made up of at least two clauses. Then, what is the difference between them? The clauses of a compound sentence are of equal importance, whereas this not so in the case of a complex sentence. In a complex sentence, one clause is more important than the other (s).

Study the following carefully :

Compound Sentence

   He worked hard      but      he did not succeed.
Co-ordinate Clause               Co-ordinate Clause

Here the two clauses are of equal importance. 'but' is Co-ordinate Conjunction.

Complex Sentence

Although he tried hard, he did not succeed.
                Subordinate     Principal Clause
                    Clause

'he tried hard' is Subordinate Clause and it is linked to Subordinate Conjunction 'Although'. Here the Principal Clause is more important than the Subordinate Clause because it is an Independant Clause. It does not depend on Subordinate Clause.

Prepositions in English Grammar

Preposition - Preposition is made of two words - Pre + Position. Pre means before and Position refers to status or place. In other words, A Preposition is a word placed before a Noun or Pronoun to indicate place, direction, source; such as -

1) The cat is on the table.

2) The cat is in the box.
3) The cat is under the table.
4) The cat is behind the box.

The underlined words show the position of the cat. We call them Prepositions.



Prepositions in English Grammar
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Types of Prepositions - There are main three types of Prepositions i.e Prepositions of Time, Prepositions of Place/ Position and Prepositions of Direction/ Movement.

1) Prepositions of Time - Prepositions of Time include the prepositions such as at, on, in, within, since, for, from, before, after, during, till (untill), through, throughout, by.

(At/in/on)
(a) 'At' is used for a point of time, e.g:
1) Ram reached here at 6 p.m.
2) I met Mr. Sharma at 5 o'clock.
3) They reached their house at sunset.
4) Our school starts at 7 a.m.
5) He heard a horrible voice at midnight.

(b) 'In' is used with months and years and also used to express approximate time,e.g:

1) India got freedom in 1947.
2) He went to Shimla in June.
3) We wear warm clothes in winter.
4) He was born in the month of November.
5) The train will reach Mumbai in three hours.
6) I have eaten my breakfast in the morning.
7) He plays cricket in the morning.

(c) 'On' is used with days and dates, e.g:

1) I shall go to Calcutta on Monday.
2) His interview falls on 15 Oct.
3) I shall return to Delhi on Friday.
4) We do not go to school on Sunday.

(Before/After)

(d) Both 'Before' and 'After' are used for point of time or period of time, e.g:
1) December comes after November.
2) I will reach the station before 5 o'clock.
3) He started working again after three hours rest.
4) He reached home after four hours.

(During)

(e) 'During' is used for a situation that continues throughout a given period, e.g:
1) He keeps reading during the day.
2) We shall go to Shimla during summer vacations.
3) He didn't go anywhere during his examinations.

(In/within)

(f) 'In' is used for the end of a period of time whereas 'within' denotes before the end of a period of time, e.g:
1) I will give you money within ten days.
2) He will come back home in a week.
3) He will return within a week.

(Since/for/from)

(g) 'Since' is used with a point in time at which an action started, and the action is considered to continue to the time of speaking.
'For' shows a period of time : as, for three years, for two months, for a few hours.
'From' can be used for time and place both. When denoting a point of time, it must be followed by 'to' or 'till', e.g:
1) He has been here for five years.
2) He has been here since 4 o' clock.
3) I have been reading in this school since last April.
4) I have been watering the plants for one hour.
5) She has been busy from morning till evening.
6) You are not allowed to attend the college from today.
7) He plays from dawn to dusk.

(Through/throughout)

(h) Both 'Through' and 'Throughout' express the action from beginning to the end, e.g:
1) The child kept crying all through the day.
2) I I kept waiting for you throughout the day.

(Till/by)

'Till' or 'Until' means 'up to a point of time', whereas 'by' is used to denote 'not later than', e.g:
1) Wait here till I come.
2) He will reach Delhi by next week.
3) I will come to your house by 8 o' clock.
4) She worked till twelve.

2) Prepositions of Place/Position - The prepositions which tell the place/position of someone or something, are called Prepositions of Place. They include - at, in, between, among, over, below, above, behind, ahead etc.

(At/in)
(a) 'In' is used before the names of countries and large cities, or before the name of the place in which one is at the time of speaking, e.g: in a country, in a town, in a street.
'At' is used for small villages or towns. When we refer to small towns or villages, we use 'at'. 'At' means inside, just outside or just beside the building or place.
1) He settled in Ludhiana.
2) He was educated in London.
3) I live at Charik.
4) I was waiting for you at the station.

(In/on)

(b) 'In'  is used to tell the usual place of living or work and also denotes position of rest.
'On' also shows position, e.g:
1) The fish live in water.
2) Mohan works in the bank.
3) The book is lying on the table.
4) He is sitting in the class.

(Between/Among)
(c) 'Between' is used for two persons or two things only whereas 'Among' is used for more than two persons or things. e.g:
1) This is between you and me.
2) Distribute these books among the students.
3) Property was divided between two brothers.
4) Sweets were distributed among the school children.

(Under/Over/Below/Above)

(d) 'Over' is the opposite of 'Under' and 'Above' is the opposite of 'Below', e.g:
1) The sky is over our head.
2) He is over head and ears in debt.
3) This area is above sea level.
4) The plane flew above the clouds.
5) My books are lying under the table.
6) He lives below the stairs.

(Behind/Ahead)
(e) 'Behind' is used for position, means to say something 'at the back'
'Ahead' is used to refer to a thing in front, e.g:
1) He stabbed me from behind.
2) Our house is behind the school.
3) Look ahead while driving.
4) There is a tree behind our house.

3) Prepositions of Direction/Movement - These type of Prepositions tell us that an object is in motion or moving. They include - into, upon, up, down, to, towards, along and across.

(Into/Upon)
(a) Both 'Into' and 'Upon' denote motion or direction, e.g:
1) He went into the room.
2) The teacher came into the class.
3) The ball fell into the well.
4) The cat jumped upon the wall.
5) The lion sprang upon the deer.

(Up/down)
(b) Both 'Up' and 'Down' are used for movement or direction, e.g:
1) He climbed up the tree.
2) He went down the hill.

(To/Towards)

(c) Both 'To' and 'Towards' are used for direction, e.g:
1) This road leads to Delhi.
2) He is going to school.
3) He is coming towards me.

(Along/Across)
(d) 'Along' means 'parallel' whereas 'Across' refers to 'on the other side', e.g:
1) He was walking along the road.
2) He lives across the river.

Some Other Uses of Prepositions:


(At)
'At' is used for rate.
Sugar is sold at Rs. 45 a kilogram.
I bought the book at a low price.

'At' means just on the side, near.
He is sitting at the dining table.

'At' is used to refer to some skill.

He is good at Mathematics.
My brother is good at Drawing.

'At' is used for a location Spot.

He met me at the airport.
He was waiting for the train at the station.

'At' is used for Institution.
He is a teacher at the University.

(For)
'For' is used if the actual amount is given.
I bought the book for Rs. 50/-
The shopkeeper sold the ball point pen for Rs. 10/-

(With/By)
'With' is used as a tool or it relates to instrument. It also indicates company. 'By' relates to the agent or the doer, e.g:
She beat the baby with a stick.
He killed a snake with a stick.
I opened the lock with a key.
I cut an apple with a knife.
She went to the market with her mother.
I go to the school by bus/ by train / by car.
This book has been written by Mr. Henry.
The letter was typed by the typist.

(Beside/Besides)
'Beside' means 'at' or 'by the side of', whereas 'Besides' means 'in addition to'.
He sat beside me.
My house is beside the temple.
Besides books, he was given fee concession also.
Besides this car, he has another car also.

(From)

'From' is also used for place, e.g:
Apples come from Himachal.
He has come from Mumbai for doing his job.

Appropriate Use of Prepositions:

1) Ashamed of : He is ashamed of his conduct. (sorry for)
2) Accused of : He was accused of murder. (charge with)
3) Aware of : I am aware of my limitations. (conscious)
4) Beware of : Beware of Pick-Pockets. (take heed)
5) Blind of : He is blind of one eye. (unable to see)
6) Come of : He comes of a noble family. (belongs to)
7) Consist of : The building consists of ten rooms. (is made up of)
8) Died of : He died of Cholera. (died because of)
9) Fond of : He is fond of reading novels. (interested in)
10) Hope of : I have no hope of success.(chance, wish for)
11) Appetite for : I have no appetite for food. (hunger)
12) Affection for: Parents have affection for their children. (love)
13) Eligible for : You are eligible for this post. (qualified)
14) Hope for : Always hope for the best. (wish for)
15) Look for : I'm looking for my missing dog. (to search)
16) Wait for : I shall wait for you. (await)
17) Agree with (someone) : I agree with you. (accept or consent)
18) Agree to (something) : He agreed to my proposal. (accepted)
19) Angry with (someone) : I'm angry with you. (displeased)
20) Angry at (something) : I'm angry with him at his misconduct. (disappointed)
21) Born in : He was born in a rich family. (take birth)
22) Busy in : He is busy in learning his lesson. (involved)
23) Deal in : He deals in cloth. (trades)
24) Trust in : Trust in God and do the right. (have faith)
25) Proficient in : He is proficient in English. (good at)
26) Addicted to : He is addicted to drinking. (given)
27) Blind to : He is blind to his shortcomings. (ignorant)
28) Close to : My school is close to my house. (near)
29) Injurious to : Smoking is Injurious to health. (harmful)
30) Superior to : This book is superior to that. (better)
31) Inferior to : This wheat is inferior to that. (low-quality)
32) Key to : Hard work is a key to success. (lead to)
33) Astonished at : I was astonished at his behavior. (surprised)
34) Knock at : Who is knocking at the door? (striking at)
35) Look at : Look at the blackboard. (see)
36) Broke into : The thief broke into the house at night. (to enter by force)
37) Broke out : Cholera has broken out in the city. (spread)
38) Got into : He has got into serious troubles. (to be involved)
39) Look into : Please look into the matter. (to inquire)
40) Look after : Parents look after their children. (to take care of)
41) Deaf to : He is to deaf to all our requests. (does not listen to)
42) Give up : Please give up smoking. (to stop)
43) Get up : I get up early in the morning. (to awake)
44) Take off : Take off your shoes before you enter the room. (remove)
45) Turn down : He turned down my request. (rejected)
46) Famous for : Agra is famous for its historical buildings.
47) Hatred for (someone) : I have no hatred for him. (hate)
48) Hatred of (something) : I have hatred of drinking.
49) Interest in : I have no interest in Physics. (enthusiasm)
50) Expert in : He is expert in Photography. (specialist)
51) Need of : I am in need of some money. (want)
52) Pride in : She takes pride in her beauty. (pride in oneself)
53) Pride of : I'm proud of you. (dignity)
54) Taste for : I have no taste for novels. (liking)
55) Jealous of : He is jealous of my success. (envious)
56) Made of : This chair is made of wood. (composed of)
57) Beneficial to : Fresh air is beneficial to health. (useful)
58) Junior to : He is junior to me in service. (lower - ranking)
59) Preparation for : He is making preparation for the examination. (training or planning)
60) Complain against : He complained against me to the Principal. (find fault)

Parts of Speech in English Grammar

Parts of Speech - A word is a basic unit in every language. A word is a proper combination of letters in the alphabet. Speech consists of words and words make sentences. Words are divided into eight categories called Parts of Speech. These categories are:

1) Nouns
2) Pronouns
3) Adjectives
4) Verbs
5) Adverbs
6) Prepositions
7) Conjunctions
8) Interjections


Parts of Speech in English Grammar
Parts of Speech with examples

1) Nouns -
A Noun is a word used in the place of a person, place, thing, animal or quality. e.g.:

1) Ram is a good boy.
2) Mumbai is a big city.
3) I bought a pen.
4) The dog is a faithful animal.
5) Honesty is the best policy.
In the above sentences, all underlined words are Nouns.

2) Pronouns- A Pronoun is a word used in the place of a noun. e.g.:
1) Pandit Jwaharlal Nehru was our first Prime Minister. He was a great man. He studied from London. It is a big city.
2) Sachin Tendlukar is my favorite cricketer. He made many centuries and won many man of matches. We are proud of him.
3) Rose is a beautiful flower but it has thorns.
4) Ram is an intelligent boy. He works very hard.
5) Laura is a good dancer. She dances very well.
In the above sentences, bold words are Pronouns.

3) Adjectives - An Adjective is a word that describes a Noun or Pronoun or adds something to its meaning. It qualifies a Noun or a Pronoun. e.g.:
1) India is a great country. (Adjectives of Quality)
2) There are thirty students in our class. (Adjectives of Number)
3) John is a good boy. (Adjectives of Quality)
4) I have a blue pen. (Adjectives of Quality)
5) Please give me some money. (Adjectives of Quantity)
In above sentences, all underlined words are Adjectives.

4) Verbs - A Verb is a word used to say something about some person, place or thing. It denotes action, feeling or existence.
1) John reads a book. (action)
2) It is a fine day. (existence)
3) I helped the poor. (action)
4) He feels sad. (feeling)
5) Nehru was a great leader. (existence)
In above sentences, all underlined words are Verbs.

5) Adverbs - An Adverb is a word which modifies the meaning of a Verb, an Adjective or another Adverb. e.g.:
1) He spoke politely. (Adverbs of Quality)
2) She is very beautiful. (Adverbs of Quantity)
3) He reached the school late. (Adverbs of Time)
4) I live here. (Adverbs of Place)
5) I visit my grandmother twice a week. (Adverbs of Number)
6) He works carefully. (Adverbs of Manner)
In above sentences, all underlined words are Adverbs.

6) Prepositions - A Preposition is a word that is used to show the relationship between two objects or persons. It is placed before a Noun or a Pronoun. It indicates some relation between the noun or pronoun to some other word. e.g.:
1) He jumped into the river. ('into' showing motion/movement)
2) I'll come at 6 o'clock. ('at' showing time)
3) He is sitting in the class. ( 'in' showing rest)
4) The property was divided between two brothers. ( 'between' used for two persons/things)
5) The sweets were distributed among children. ( 'among' used for more than two persons/things)
In above sentences, all underlined words are Prepositions.

7) Conjunctions - Conjunctions are joining words. They help us in joining words, phrases, clauses and even sentences. e.g.:
1) Jim and Smith are good friends.
2) He could not come to school because he was ill.
3) You will pass if you work hard.
4) He ran fast but could not catch the bus.
5) Although he is poor, yet he is very happy.
In above sentences, all underlined words are Conjunctions.

8) Interjections - The word which is used to express some sudden feeling or emotion is called an Interjection. e.g.:
1) Hurrah! We have won the match.
2) Alas! He is no more.
3) Oh! I lost my book.
4) Lo! She has arrived.
5) Sorry! I can't lend you my scooter.
In above sentences, all underlined words are Interjections.

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Phrase & Clause | English Grammar |

Phrase & Clause are also a part of English Grammar. These are the part of a sentence, Clause gives the sentence a meaning.

Phrase & Clause | English Grammar |
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Phrase - A Phrase is a part of the sentence and does not give complete sense.

Examples:
1. The sun sets in the west.
2. He sat on a wall.
3. I like playing hockey.
4. I don't know how to prepare tea.
5. He took lunch in the afternoon.
6. He tried to win the match.
7. He slept at night.
8. To err is human.
9. I salute my motherland.
10. We want a place in the city.

The group of words in italics given above are Phrases.

Clause - A clause has a subject and a predicate and makes complete sense.

Kinds of Clauses: There are three kinds of Clauses :

1) Principal Clause - The clause which is not dependent on other clause for its meaning is called Principal Clause. It is also called Independent Clause, e.g:

1) They rested when evening came.
2) He is the boy who stole my pen.

In above sentences, 'They rested' and 'He is the boy' are Principal Clauses because they give complete meaning.

2) Co-ordinate Clause - This Clause is called an Independent Clause because it is not dependent on other clause. Two simple sentences are combined with each other with one Co-ordinate Conjunction,e.g:

1) He is rich but he is miser.
2) Go away or Come in.

In sentence 1, 'He is rich' and 'he is miser' are two independent clauses which are joined by Co-ordinate Conjunction 'but'. The clause which starts with Co-ordinate Conjunction is called Co-ordinate Clause.

3) Subordinate Clause - This clause does not have complete meaning in itself. It depends on Principal Clause to clear its meaning, e.g:

1) He told me me a story which was interesting.
2) We must help those who are poor.

In sentence 1, 'which was interesting' is not able to give its complete meaning, it depends on Principal Clause - 'He told me a story' for its meaning. Therefore 'which was interesting' is Subordinate Clause. Subordinate Clause is further divided into three clauses - Noun Clause, Adjective Clause and Adverb Clause that will be discussed in different topic.

Examples:
1. Tell me what you want.
2. I don't know where he lives.
3. Ram told me that he was not well.
4. I can't go while it is raining.
5. I think that you have done your duty.
6. I believe he is innocent.
7. I am sure he will help you.
8. They believed that he was innocent.
9. He is sure that he will win the match.
10. No one doubts that he speaks the truth.

In the above sentences, the group of words in italics are Clauses.

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Subject & Predicate | English Grammar |

Subject & Predicate are found in the sentence. Sentence is formed by Subject & Predicate. Subject & Predicate are the basis of English Grammar. Anyone who wants to learn English, should start learning from Subject & Predicate.

Subject & Predicate | English Grammar |
Subject & Predicate


Subject: The part of the sentence which is talked about, is called the Subject. The subject has a Noun or a Pronoun in it. In the sentences which are given below, the first part (in italics) consists of a word or a group of words about which something has been said.

Examples:
1. We play.
2. His brother sings a song.
3. The peon is ringing the bell.
4. He reads the book.
5. The boys were making a noise

Predicate: The part of the sentence which tells about the subject is called Predicate. The Predicate has a verb in it. The table showing Subject & Predicate is given below:

Subject
Predicate
We
play
His brother
sings a song.
The peon
is ringing the bell.
He
reads the book.
The boys
were making a noise.

There are some sentences in which the Subject is not directly given. It is understood. Look at the following sentences:
1. Play the game.
2. Stand up.
3. Thank you.
4. Sit down.
5. Listen to me.

It is obvious that the Subject in sentences 1 and 2 above is "You" while the Subject in sentence 3 is "I".

Sentence & its types | English Grammar |

Some words mingled with one another make a sentence. So Sentence is the starting point of learning English. We should have knowledge of the Sentence to learn English Grammar.

Sentence: A sentence is a group of words which gives complete sense.
For example:
1. He goes to school.
2. It is raining outside.
3. Where do you live?
4. May you live long!
5. What a splendid building!
Types of Sentences: Sentences are of five types that are given below:

Sentence & its types | English Grammar |
Sentence in English

1. Assertive Sentence: An Assertive Sentence is one which declares something. It may be positive or negative.
Examples:
1. He was driving a car.
2. I don't tell a lie.
3. He speaks the truth.
4. He does not want to play.
An Assertive Sentence is also called Declarative Sentence.
2. Interrogative Sentence: An Interrogative Sentence is one in which a question is asked.
Examples:
1. What is your name?
2. When will you come?
3. Which is your book?
4. Where are you going?
3. Imperative Sentence: An Imperative Sentence is one which tells about a command, a request or an advice which is expressed in the sentence.
Examples:
1. March Forward. (Command)
2. Please give me some money. (Request)
3. You should help the poor. (Advice)
4. Exclamatory Sentence: An Exclamatory Sentence is one which expresses a strong feeling of joy, sorrow or surprise.
Examples:
1. What a beautiful flower!
2. Alas! I'm ruined.
3. Hurrah! We have won the match.
5. Optative Sentence: An Optative sentence is one which expresses a wish.
For examples:
1. Would that I were millionaire!
2. May God bless you with a son!
3. May you prosper in life!
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